|A History of The IAP|
THE INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF PATHOLOGY and THE UNITED STATES - CANADIAN DIVISION
THE FIRST SEVENTY-FIVE YEARS, 1906-1981
by Kenneth M. Earle, M.D. President, United States - Canadian Division of the International Academy of Pathology, 1980-81
Presented in part as the Diamond Jubilee Lecture at the meeting of the United States-Canadian Division in Chicago, March 2-7, 1981, commemorating the 75th Anniversary of the International Academy of Pathology.
Earle, K.M., M.D.: The International Academy of Pathology: The First seventy-five Years, 1906-1981. (Presented in part at the Seventieth Meeting of the International Academy of Pathology, United States-Canadian Division, at the Palmer House Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, March 2, 1981, The Diamond Jubilee Lecture.)
The concept of an international academy of pathology originated in 1906 when Maude Abbott, M.D. of McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Major James Carroll of Washington, D.C.; and W. G. MacCallum, M.D. of Baltimore, Maryland met at the Army Medical Museum in Washington, D.C., and later in Baltimore, Maryland and formed an organizing committee to establish an International Association of Medical Museums. A letter of invitation was sent to the leading medical museums throughout the world requesting them to join in forming an international association. This let to the formal organization of the International Association of Medical Museums (IAMM).
The first documented meeting was held in 1907. Many renowned scientists attended. Among them was Dr. William Osler who played an especially prominent role in the founding of the International Association of Medical Museums (IAMM).
The name of the IAMM was changed in 1955 to the International Academy of Pathology (IAP). In 1969, a new Constitution and Bylaws formalized both the Divisional and International organization of the International Academy of Pathology. Divisions evolved in various countries throughout the world.
The history of the first seventy-five years is reviewed in chronological order with emphasis on some of the personalities that molded the early developments.
The movement to form an International Association of Medical Museums began during the Winter of 1906. Two preliminary meetings for the purpose of organization were held in Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, Maryland on May 15 and 17, 1906, when an organizing committee was formed to perform the work of enrolling members and formulating a Constitution. This committee on organization consisted of Major James Carroll of the Army Medical Museum, Washington, D.C.; W. G. MacCallum, M.D. Of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland; and Maude E. Abbott, M.D. of McGill University, Montreal, Canada. It is not clear exactly how the original organizing committee of three was formed but it was most likely by personal correspondence between them.
The organizing committee generated a letter of invitation to members among the leading medical museums throughout the world inviting them to join in forming an international association. It was stressed that "Only active workers connected with leading medical museums should be admitted to membership, and the international character of the Association and the importance of its function as a medium for the interchange of museum material, were insisted upon as its most essential principles.' It was further stipulated that "The business of the Association was to be conducted chiefly by means of correspondence, and the meetings were to be held triennially at Washington, in connection with the Congress of Physicians and Surgeons unless otherwise specially arranged; in this way it was thought to forestall and obviate the objections likely to be raised to the formation of a new association with obligate annual meetings in these days of an over-organized profession."
The first documented meeting of the International Association of Medical Museums (IAMM) was held on May 6, 1907 at 3:00 p.m. in the Army Medical Museum in Washington, D.C. Dr. W. G. MacCallum presided because of the illness of Major James Carroll, Chairman of the Organizing Committee. Dr. MacCallum recounted that this meeting had been called by Major Carroll for the purposes of taking formal steps in organizing the Association."
Present at this meeting were: Prof. William Osler (Oxford, England); Capt. Frederick Fuller Russell (Washington, D.C.); Prof. F. F. Westbrook (Minnesota); Prof. J. J. MacKenzie (Toronto, Canada); Prof. R. M. Pearce (Albany); Dr. D. S. Lamb (Washington, D.C.); Prof. Edmond Souchon (Louisiana); Dr. D. J. Healy (Washington, D.C.); Dr. White (Minnesota); Prof. W. G. MacCallum (Baltimore); Dr. Maude E. Abbott (Montreal, Canada); and Prof. Henry Albert (Iowa).
The Committee on Organization was empowered to continue its activities and to frame a Constitution and Bylaws. The list of potential organizing members who responded to the invitation sent out by Maude Abbott was presented at the meeting and it was resolved that those who applied for active membership would be included among the organizing members.
The first officers elected were: President, Major James Carroll, Army Medical Museum, Washington, D.C.; First Vice President, Prof. W. G. MacCallum, Johns Hopkins University Medical School, Baltimore, Maryland; Second Vice President, Prof. J. Ritchie, Oxford University, Oxford, England; Second Vice President, Prof. J. Ludwig Aschoff, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; and Secretary / Treasurer, Dr. Maude E. Abbott, McGill Medical Museum, Montreal, Canada.
As Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. Maude Abbott became the moving spirit of the IAMM and it is truly appropriate that the letterhead of the International Academy of Pathology contain the phrase "Founded by Maude Abbott in 1906." She credited the idea of an association of medical museums to Prof. Wyatt Johnston of McGill University and Pathologist at the Montreal General Hospital who made the suggestion to the staff of the Army Medical Museum in 1899, but no action was taken until Dr. D. S. Lamb of the Army Medical Museum staff repeated the suggestion in 1905 to Major James Carroll who was Curator at that time.
It was suggested by Dr. Osler that the Association issue a yearly or half-yearly bulletin of museum information similar to an existing German periodical pertaining particularly to the exchange of specimens and lacunae in collections. The motion passed unanimously.
In closing the meeting, Dr. MacCallum drew attention to the recent loss by fire of most of the Pathological Museum and all of the Anatomical Museum at McGill University in Montreal. He urged all members to assist in restoration of this museum. Dr. Maude Abbott issued an appeal in the bulletin for replacement of specimens.
The second meeting of the IAMM was held in the Assembly Hall of the new National Museum (an addition to the original red brick Smithsonian Building on Independence Avenue) in Washington, D.C. on October 1-2, 1908. This was the first international meeting and was held in conjunction with the International Congress on Tuberculosis.
The meeting was chaired by the First vice-president, W. G. MacCallum, "acting in the place of the late lamented President, Dr. James Carroll." Dr. Carroll died five months after he was elected to office and at this meeting Dr. W. G. MacCallum was elected to succeed him.
Discussions in the first two meetings centered around the publication of a bulletin, the exchange of specimens, the need for a uniform system of museum classification, possible association with the American Association of Museums or the Museums Association of Great Britain, the presentation of results of research as material for medical museums and its proposed constitution. Dr. Abbott demonstrated a series of specimens of anomalies of the heart, obtained from the Army Medical Museum and the museums of McGill University and Johns Hopkins Hospital.
The first constitution and bylaws received approval at this meeting. The scientific program consisted of eight presentations, mostly concerning methods of preservation of museum specimens. On October 12, 1909, a circular letter was sent to all members of the IAMM from Maude Abbott that revealed some of her strength and character. This letter read:
The names on the enclosed list have been proposed by your Committee for membership in the International Association of Medical Museums, and these gentlemen have all signified their wish to join the Association.
According to Articles II and VI of the Constitution, the membership is elective and may be extended at any time in the interim of the meetings by the two-thirds majority vote of the members taken in writing by the Secretary. Most of the names submitted on this occasion are so distinguished as to render their election a mere matter of conformity to the Constitution. Please record your vote by writing "Yes" opposite the name voted upon in the column assigned and return to the Secretary at your earliest convenience.
The annual membership fee of $2.00 is now due.
Yours very sincerely,
Maude Abbott, M.D.
Proposed for membership were: Prof. Hans Chiari, Strassburg, Germany; Prof. Paul Courmont, Lyon, France; Dr. Oswaldo deCruz, Rio de Janiero, Brazil; Prof. Forsmann, Lund, Sweden; Prof. Herxheimer, Wiesbaden, Germany; Prof. Z. Jores, Coln-Lindenthal, Germany; Prof. Josselin de Jong, Leyden, Holland; Prof. Kretz, Prague, Austria; Prof. Thomas G. Lee, University of Minnesota, U.S.A.; Prof. Lubarsch, Dusseldorf, Germany; Prof. G. MacConnell, Cancer Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.; Prof. Pierre Marie, Paris, France; Prof. Martinotti, Bologna, Italy; Prof. E. S. Popham, Manitoba Medical College Canada; Prof. Quensal, Upsala, Sweden; Prof. Gustav Roussy, Paris, France; Dr. Victo Scheele, Copenhagen, Denmark; Prof. Oskar Stoerck, Vienna, Austria; Dr. W. Olferstan Thomas, North Brazil; Dr. J. L Todd, McDonald College, Canada; Dr. S. B. Wolbach, Montreal General Hospital, Canada; and Dr. G. M. Byers, McGill University, Canada.
The first Constitution and Bylaws were published in Bulletin No. 2 of the IAMM on January 15, 1909. This two page document called for annual meetings, membership to be elective and an annual dues of $2.00.
The third meeting of the IAMM was held May 3-4, 1910 in a small room in the new Willard Hotel, Washington, D.C., on which dates the Congress of American Physicians and Surgeons took place. Four new members were added during this meeting: Prof. Carl Sunddorf of Sweden; Dr. B. C. Crowell of New York; Dr. G. N. Whipple of Baltimore, Maryland; and Dr. Martha Wollenstein of New York.
Prof. A. S. Warthin (University of Michigan) was elected President: Prof. Sims Woodhead (Cambridge, England) was elected 1st Vice President; Prof. Edmond Souchon (Tulane, New Orleans) 2nd Vice President; Prof. Ludwig Aschoff (Freiburg, Germany) 3rd Vice President. Councillors elected were Prof. W. G. MacCallum (College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York); Dr. D. S. Lamb (Army Medical Museum Washington, D.C.); Prof. F. F. Westbrook (University of Minnesota); Prof. LeCount (University of Chicago); Prof. P. G. Wooley University of Cincinnati); Prof. W. Ophuls (San Francisco, California); Dr. George Whipple (Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Maryland).
Dr. Maude Abbott was re-elected Secretary-Treasurer and Dr. W W Francis, a colorful character, was elected Assistant Secretary-Treasurer. W. W. Francis was the son of a first cousin of William Osler. He was one of four who later catalogued the Osler Library at Oxford, England and became the Osler Librarian when the collection was willed by Osler to McGill University where it was transferred in 1928. According to a legend, Francis escorted the Osler Library to Montreal "sitting on top of the pile of eighty-six packing cases."
The fourth meeting was held in Chicago, Illinois on the afternoon of April 18, 1911, preceding the meeting of the American Association of Pathologists and Bacteriologists. Thirty-five members attended and forty-four members were elected including many pathologists from France, Germany, Italy, Holland, Belgium, Japan, England, Scotland, Ireland, U.S.A. and Canada.
The following are excerpts from the
minutes of that meeting:
From this meeting on, there was periodic discussion of the desirability of having European and United States-Canadian sections.
At this meeting a paper was presented by Dr. Thomas Ordway, advocating the case method of teaching pathology as done by clinical departments. Dr. Ordway quoted Dr. F. C. Curtis on this subject "Education is something more than barnacle-like accretion of facts; if that were all, the mind is likely to be burdened and hindered by them as furnished and helped." From the discussion, it seemed that the case method of teaching pathology was used only in a few of the better medical schools. It must be remembered that the Flexner Report had just been published and pressure to close inferior proprietary medical schools was just beginning in the United States at this time.
Several papers were presented on the preparation and display of museum specimens including temporal bone preparation, the lettering of museum jars, and the tagging of specimens. The results of a circular sent to members of the IAMM by President A. S. Warthin were presented. This "Experience Circular No. 1" asked the members to comment on methods that they used in the preservation of specimens to preserve color. The Kaiserling Method of preservation was preferred by most respondents.
A listing of members at this meeting included honorary members: Prof. J. G. Adami of McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Sir Jonathan Hutchinson, Post Graduate School, London, England; Prof. William Osler, Oxford, England; and Prof. William Welch, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
The active membership had grown to 104.
The fifth meeting was held at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia on April 4, 1912 in conjunction with the meeting of the American Association of Pathologists and Bacteriologists. President Warthin called attention to the rapid growth of the Association and proposed as a constitutional amendment that whereas an annual meeting was necessary for the conduct of business, it was not permissible to have a meeting of international character every year. Therefore, a clause was added to Article V of the Constitution as follows: "Every third year the meeting shall be held at a time and place accessible to foreign members, and shall be an international character, and at this meeting the triennial election of officers shall take place." This was the forerunner of our International Congresses that are now held every two years and signaled the formation of a truly international body with divisions in various countries.
In view of the forthcoming sixth meeting to be held in London, England, a business meeting of the members resident in America was held on May 5, 1913 at the Army Medical School in Washington, D.C. (This was the forerunner of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. It was not a medical school in the sense that it offered an M.D. or other academic degrees. It was a medical post-graduate school designed to teach military and tropical medicine to medical officers.) This meeting was concerned with organizing a local section of the IAMM for the United States and Canada and making preparations for the sixth meeting in London. The American-Canadian Section was not formally established at the May 5, 1913 meeting nor did the International Constitution and Bylaws refer to sections or divisions in various countries. The records of this business meeting were not available but subsequent records indicated that Prof. R. M. Pearce was elected President of the American Section of the IAMM.
The sixth annual meeting and second
triennial meeting was the first to be held in Europe. This meeting was
held in conjunction with the XVIIth International Congress of Medicine.
Three sessions were held as follows:
Part II - Symposium on "Experience Circular No. 2" (dealing with the preparation of issues for microscopic examination and the means of storing and filing histological specimens), Wednesday, August 6, 1913 at the Museum of the International Congress of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, South Kensington.
Part III -Papers and Demonstrations
on Exhibits in the Section of Museum Technique, Thursday, August 7,
1913 at the Imperial College of Science, South Kensington.
Maude Abbott's Scrapbook included a complete program of this meeting, an article in Lancet, and invitation to social events, including an invitation from His Majesty the King to tea on the East Lawn of Windsor Castle on August 9, and a concert by the Band of the Royal Regiment of Artillery and the Prince's Red Band in the Royal Botanic Gardens at Regent's Park on Monday, August 11. This latter event was hosted by Lord and Lady Strathcona. (Lord Strathcona was born in Scotland and sailed to Canada to join the Hudson Bay Company as a boy of 15. From a bleak isolated post in Labrador, he rose to be Resident Governor of the Hudson Bay Company. He was one of the chief proponents of the Canadian Pacific Railroad in 1886. His wealth and influence enabled him to carry out many philanthropies.)
Pipers from the Scots Guards performed and light refreshments were served in the Gardens and in the Fellow's Dining Room. Lord Strathcona stood for three hours to personally greet each of the 3,000 persons who attended.
At this first truly international meeting, Prof. Arthur Keith, Honorary President of the meeting, introduced Prof. A. S. Warthin as the President of the IAMM. Prof. Warthin noted the growth of the Associations membership to more than 200 leading pathologists and anatomists in the world. Sir William Osler spoke on the improved organization of the Association, and President Warthin stated at this meeting "the organization of the international body and its local sectional societies was to be thoroughly worked out." Sir William Osler suggested that the international development of the IAMM could proceed along the lines of a "central bureau which could control the different branches in various countries and hold triennial meetings in the country where the International Medical Congress was held." At this meeting recommendations were adopted establishing "a central international body with international officers and local or sectional societies with local officers, one society in each country represented."
The following officers of the International Body were elected: President, Prof. Ludwig Aschoff (Frieburg, Germany); First Vice President, Arthur Keith (London, England); Second Vice President, Prof. Pierre Marie (Paris, France); Third Vice President, Prof. R. M. Pearce (Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A.); SecretaryTreasurer, Dr. Maude Abbott (Montreal, Canada). Councillors were: Sir William Osler (England); Prof. J. G. Adami (Canada); Prof. A. S. Warthin (U.S.A.); Prof. Bernard Fischer (Germany); Prof. Paul Courmant (France); Prof. J. Fibiger (Denmark); Prof. Harbitz (Norway); Prof. Askanazy (Switzerland); Dr. de Josselin de Jong (Holland); and Dr. Rene Sand (Belgium).
Prof. Palteholz demonstrated a series of histological preparations of various organs and Prof. Adolph Meyer showed three glass reconstruction models of the human brain. Several papers were presented on techniques of staining.
Although the exchange of specimens was stated many times to be one of the most important functions of the IAMM, and needs were published in the bulletins, the actual exchange of specimens seemed to have been meager and sporadic.
The Wellcome Historical Museum, originated by Dr. H. W. Wellcome, who was an organizer of the Burroughs and Wellcome Pharmaceutical Company, was one of the most interesting features of the Congress. This collection occupied two large suites of rooms and specimens were arranged in order of evolution of the history of medicine. Dr. Wellcome was a member of the IAMM.
On February 15, 1914, Maude Abbott sent the following announcement to all members of the IAMM: "Donald Alexander Smith, Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal, Born August 6, 1820 died January 1914 BENEFACTOR." The announcement explained that Lord Strathcona, High Commissioner of Canada, Chancellor of McGill University, Canadian Financier and Philanthropist, had been informed of the meager financial status of the IAMM at the meeting in London. Lord Strathcona promised a gift of One Thousand Pounds Sterling. "His personal check for the larger amount of Five Thousand Dollars ($5,000.00), (20,000 marks or 25,000 francs) was received by Maude Abbott on October 5, 1913. The money was immediately handed over to the trustees of McGill University, Montreal to be invested for the IAMM. The interest was to be applied to the establishment and maintenance of the proceedings of the Association at a higher standard of efficiency."
Unfortunately, the announcement of this gift was delayed until the publication of Bulletin No. 5, published in June 1915 after the death of Lord Strathcona at age 93. This gift was one of his last of many acts of public benevolence.
Another famous member of the IAMM died in 19l4, Prof. Charles S. Minot, Anatomist at Harvard University whose microtome for making histological sections was used widely. His obituary is recorded in the same Bulletin No. 5.
After the London Meeting of August 6-9, 1913, Maude Abbott visited the International President, Prof. Ludwig Aschoff, in Freiburg where they discussed the possible development of the IAMM over the next three years. They had agreed that sectional sub-societies should be formed in various countries to include representatives of Pathology, Anatomy and Public Health and that the sectional societies seek representation of the IAMM in their national societies of pathology as had been done in the German Pathological Society. Both of these suggestions were accomplished to a large extent but not until the Constitution of 1969 was ratified.
Maude Abbott had also visited the headquarters of the Verin zum Austausch Anatomischer Praparate at the Senekenberg Institute in Frankfurt-am-Main and then visited various pathological and anatomical institutes in Milan, Pavia, Bologna, Rome, Naples and Turin with a view toward the organization of an Italian Section.
World War I disrupted communications so seriously that the IAMM as a viable international organization ended abruptly. No further international meetings were held until 1960 and no international presidents were elected again until 1969. Prof. Ludwig Aschoff was to have served as International President until the next triennial meeting in Munich but that meeting was never held.
The U.S. and Canadian members continued the organization as the American Section (later called the American-Canadian Section). It was kept alive through the efforts and energy of Maude Abbott.
The seventh annual meeting and the first meeting of the American Section was held on April 9, 1914 in Toronto in conjunction with the meeting of the American Association of Pathologists and Bacteriologists. Prof. R. M. Pearce presided as President of the American Section. The program consisted of papers and demonstrations of macroscopic and microscopic techniques for the most part. Correspondence indicates that attempts to organize sections in various countries was continuing at this time without much success. Sections in England, Germany, Switzerland, and France functioned briefly but they too succumbed to the interruption of World War I.
The stationery used by Maude Abbott in 1914 continued to list Prof. Aschoff as President on the letterhead although her letters indicated that Prof. Pearce was President of the American Section of the IAMM. On December 22, 1914, a letter from Prof. Pearce (Philadelphia) indicated that the war had interrupted correspondence between Canada and the warring countries and that he had, as '"a citizen of a neutral state," appointed Prof. A. J. Smith (Philadelphia) as an acting Secretary-Treasurer for the U.S. Division. When the war ended, Maude Abbott resumed her full duties as Secretary-Treasurer.
The eighth annual meeting was held at the Washington University School of Medicine on April 1, 1915 on the day preceding the AAPB meeting. The program consisted of six papers on technique and nine demonstrations.
An Editorial in Bulletin No. 5, published
June 1915 states:
The Bulletin was being supported by the Strathcona Fund and not from dues which largely ceased to be paid.
New members elected at this meeting included Prof. F. B. Mallory, Prof. C. H. Bunting, Dr. Carl V. Weller, Dr. R. J. Terry, Dr. R. C. Rosenberger, Dr. Horst Oertel, Prof. John Sundwall, and Dr. Plinn Morse.
The ninth meeting was held at the Army Medical School, Washington, D.C. On May 8, 1916. Prof. A. S. Warthin (Ann Arbor) chaired this meeting. At this meeting, a need was expressed for square glass museum jars. The supply obtained from Germany had been discontinued by the war. At this meeting, Prof. Oskar Klotz (Pittsburgh) was elected President for 1916-1917 and served until 1920. A financial statement at this meeting revealed a fund balance of $202.30. The income from members fees was $189.52 and from interest on the Strathcona Fund $300.00 and other interest $7.07. Expenses included $411.10 for publication of the Bulletin.
The tenth meeting was held at the Academy of Medicine in New York on April 5, 1917. Prof. Klotz was re-elected President for 1917-1918. Prof. Klotz reported that the Phoenix Glass Company of Pittsburgh had agreed to manufacture square glass jars for museum purposes. The price for 5 x 5 x 3 cm. jars was $1.60 per dozen; for 15 x 25 x 10 cm. jars the price was $27.75 per dozen. There were many sizes in between the above. An American substitute for Russian paraffin was reported as being made.
On April 5, 1917, the following telegram was dispatched: "The American Section of the International Association of Medical Museums places itself in the present emergency and offers the services of its workers and resources in its special field of research in any the National Committee may suggest. Signed, Oskar Klotz, President."
World War I began in Europe in August 1914. The U. S. officially declared war on the 6th of April 1917, the day after the above telegram was sent during the tenth annual meeting.
At the tenth meeting a discussion took place on the clashing of the time of the meetings of four societies with kindred interests, namely, the American Association of Pathologists and Bacteriologists, the American Section of the IAMM, the Cancer Society, and the American Association of Immunologists. Some sort of federation was suggested.
Scientific publications in the Bulletin evolved during the war years from predominance of papers on the preservation of gross specimens to histopathological studies concerned with the causes and manifestations of specific diseases such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) poisoning in munitions workers. Bulletin No. 6 contained two full page plates in color from camera lucida drawings showing special stains of sympathetic ganglion cells and blood cells of a human and a goat, indicating an increasing interest in histopathology.
Maude Abbott published a Special War Bulletin in May 1918 but distribution was restricted to allied and neutral countries. In this issue there were articles on trench foot, gassing, industrial poisonings, "Soldier's heart," war oedema, insect vectors, venereal disease, tetanus, gas gangrene, embolism and shock, and many other war related diseases.
An annual meeting scheduled for March 28, 1918 was canceled, however, members were invited to send exhibits to the American Association of Pathologists and Bacteriologists meeting in Philadelphia, March 29-30, 1918.
The twelfth annual meeting was held in the Guild Hall in the Church of the Ascension, 30 Kentucky Avenue, Atlantic City, New Jersey on June 16, 1919.
THE NINETEEN TWENTIES AND THIRTIES
There is no record of an annual meeting in 1920 but a meeting was held in the Cleveland Medical Library on March 24, 1921.
The meetings during the twenties and thirties were frequently held in conjunction with the American Association of Pathologists and Bacteriologists (AAPB). Exhibits were a predominant part of each meeting, involving gross specimens and microphotographs. Dr. Harry Goldblatt was in charge of exhibits at the meeting in 1921 and Major George R. Callender was in charge of exhibits at the meeting in 1922 held at the Army Medical Museum in Washington, D.C. on May 1.
A pattern of naming a local pathologist to be in charge of exhibits prevailed during most of these two decades. The character of the meetings changed slowly from discussions of technical methods and museum preparations to symposia, demonstrations, and histopathological studies.
During this time the Bulletin of the IAMM was published regularly through the efforts of Maude Abbott. It was subsidized financially by the interest income from the Strathcona Fund.
Bulletins No. 1 through 3 were published courtesy of the Surgeon General of the U.S. Army, probably through Major F. F. Russell, who was Curator of the Army Medical Museum and listed as a member of the Editorial Board.
Bulletins 4 through 7 were published at Ann Arbor with Prof. A. S. Warthin (Ann Arbor) and Maude Abbott (Montreal) as co-editors. Paul Hoeber, Inc., New York was the original publisher, but this contract was terminated after a few years and transferred to the Murray Printing Company in Toronto by Maude Abbott.
On April 18, 1921, a circular letter was written indicating that Bulletin No. 8 of the IAMM would be issued in the form of an Osler Memorial. This Bulletin was issued in 1924.
An announcement was published by Major G. R. Callender in this Bulletin concerning the establishment of a bureau for the exchange of pathological specimens and for a depository for objective material resulting from original work in medical research. This announcement informed the members of the Association of the transfer of the "Exchange Bureau" from McGill University at Montreal to the Army Medical Museum in Washington, D.C. The Secretary of War, in 1922, had authorized the issue of a revocable lease to the IAMM and the Surgeon General had allowed the medical officers on duty at the Army Medical Museum to care for the administrative and pathological details of some exchange activities. The announcement stated: "Since the Bureau has been established the following societies have made the Army Medical Museum the depository of their results of original research: the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, the American Society of Dermatology and the Philadelphia Pathological Society. Several original manuscripts accompanied by histological slides on which some of their conclusions were based have been forwarded to the Army Medical Museum to be filed...." This article continues to describe accessions at the Army Medical Museum including 4,000 bacteriological type cultures and specimens of tropical diseases from the Philippines. The Army Medical Museum was stated to be in the process of reporting 19 cases to the Registry of Bone Tumors. This is the first mention in the Bulletin of the establishment of registries at the Army Medical Museum.
The seventeenth annual meeting of the IAMM was held in the library of the Buffalo Medical College on April 17, 1924 in conjunction with the meeting of the AAPB and the American Association of Anatomists. This was listed as the seventeenth annual meeting, but it was, in reality, a meeting held in the seventeenth year of the Association since no official meetings were recorded for 1918, 1920, 1923. This meeting was the last one recorded in Maude Abbott's Scrap Book.
Prof. F. B. Mallory presided as the President (1923-24) and Dr. James F. Coupal was elected President for 1924-25. In his opening remarks, Prof. Mallory stated that pathology was becoming a more desirable specialty than it had been in the past: "Men of better training were getting as high as $7,500 and more and some college hospitals were paying as much as $12,000 for men who have had good laboratory training along pathological lines. In the past salaries were very poor, so that those interested in this field had often been obliged to leave for the better paying specialties."
There was a great deal of discussion about the classification of specimens by numerical coding systems. A resolution was passed giving "the unqualified approval" of depositories at the Army Medical Museum and urging support of all members. Increasing costs of publishing the Bulletin, especially the William Osler Special Volume No. 9, had created serious financial problems. Major George R. Callender and Major James F. Coupal were constituted as a committee to try to obtain an endowment from the Carnegie Foundation of New York. (Six years later a grant of $5,000 was finally obtained.) Concern was expressed that a new journal, American Journal of Pathology, was about to be issued and that this may seriously affect subscriptions to the Bulletin. After discussion involving possible discontinuance of the Bulletin, a motion was passed to continue it and pledging support of all members present.
Reactivation of overseas sections of the IAMM was attempted after World War I with limited success. The following statement was made in an editorial in the Bulletin, Volume 10, 1924: "The Canadian and American Section, blessed above others in economic welfare of its members, must collectively and individually lend every encouragement to its fellow sections and by enthusiastic support of the Association so impress museum workers the world over that international cooperation will follow. Howard T. Karsner."
The eighteenth annual meeting of the Council was held at the home of the President, Major James F. Coupal, 16th Street Mansion, Washington, D.C. on May 3, 1925. Present were Drs. Karsner, Robertson, Klotz, Mills, Callender, Krumbhaar, Mallory, Warthin, Wiedman, Abbott and Mr. E. L. Judah. The regular meeting was held on May 4 in the Army Medical Museum. A symposium on the Problems of Securing Autopsies was presented.
The nineteenth meeting was held in the Central Laboratory of the Division of Laboratories and Research of the New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York on April 1, 1926. The Officers and Council of the preceding year were re-elected.
The twentieth annual meeting of the Council was held on April 13, 1927 at the Hotel Rochester in New York and the regular meeting was held on April 14 at the University of Rochester Medical School.
The twenty-first meeting was held at the Army Medical Museum in Washington, D.C., April 30, 1928. Major Coupal was re-elected President. The other officers were also re-elected.
The twenty-second meeting of the Council was held at the Hotel Windermere, Chicago, on March 26, 1929. "In the absence of the President, Major Coupal, the chair was occupied by Major Callender." The regular meeting was held at the University of Chicago Medical School on March 27, 1929.
The twenty-third meeting was held at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University in New York, April 16, 1930. Three new Councillors were named at this meeting: Pierre Masson of Montreal, Alvin Pappenheimer of New York and Paul D. White of Boston.
In 1934, Robert A. Moore wrote an editorial for the Editorial Committee (Bulletin No. XVI) in which he recognized the competition with other journals and stated the editorial policy was to limit the Bulletin to one publication of papers on techniques, especially as applied to museum material and to make it an annual publication.
The Bulletin of the International Association of Medical Museums was an important thread holding the Association together from 1907 until 1952 when it was replaced by the new journal "Laboratory Investigation." Maude Abbott served as Editor or Co-Editor from 1907-1938. She was succeeded by Robert A. Moore in 1939.
Maude E. Abbott died on September 2, 1940. After her death, Col. James Earle Ash was elected by letter ballot to fill the vacancy of International Secretary-Treasurer of the IAMM. The Army Medical Museum where he was the Curator was established as the Custodian of the Association's property.
At the thirty-fourth annual meeting of the U.S.-Canadian Section in 1940, Col. Ash was elected permanent International Secretary of the Association. Since there was no truly active international body, the U.S.-Canadian Section assumed this responsibility.
The minutes of the Council of April 8, 1941 contained the following statement: "Because of unstable international conditions it was decided to canvas all members of the International Association and establish as Secretary / Treasurer the holder of that office in the American-Canadian Section." Attention was drawn to the fact that the U.S.-Canadian Section had no Constitution and Bylaws of its own so three members were appointed to draw up a Constitution and Bylaws for the U.S.-Canadian Section. Appointed to this Committee were Drs. Ash, Callender and Haythorn.
The annual meetings continued to consist of exhibits and papers, mostly of a technical nature.
In February 1943, a special "War" Bulletin, No. 23, on "The Autopsy" was published. This publication was recommended by a Conference Group on Pathology of the National Research Council in 1942. Representatives of the Army, Navy, and Public Health Service attended subsequent meetings. The illustrations were done at the Army Medical Museum.
The Conference Group consisted of Drs. Ernest W. Goodpasture (Chairman), Howard T. Karsner, Arnold R. Rich, Milton C. Winternitz, and Robert A. Moore (Secretary). This Bulletin was most useful to young pathologists (including the author) during World War II.
No formal meetings of the IAMM were held from 1942-1947, but Col. Ash, as Secretary-Treasurer, conducted some correspondence with members of the Council and made short reports in the Bulletins of the IAMM. The Council conducted most of its business by correspondence. Dues were suspended for the duration of World War II.
A special issue of the Bulletin, No. 24, published in December 1946 on Technical Methods in Use at the Army Institute of Pathology included details of histological techniques.
The Committee to draft a U.S.-Canadian Division Constitution and Bylaws selected in 1942 failed to function and was dismissed and replaced by Drs. G. Lyman Duff (Chairman), Samuel R. Haythorn, Ralph D. Lillie, and Col. James E. Ash at a meeting of the Council in Chicago on August 10, 1946 at the Windermere Hotel.
In 1946, Robert Moore resigned as Editor of the Bulletin. He was replaced by Sidney Farber. Ralph D. Lillie was appointed by the IAMM to the Biological Stain Commission. Dues were again set at $2.00 per year. The first meeting of the Pathology Study Section took place at the National Institutes of Health this year and Paul Cannon was elected Chairman.
A meeting of the Council was held on May 14, 1947 in Chicago. The Council met only once from 1942-1947 (August 10, 1946).
In 1947, Dr. C. J. Hackett, Secretary of the British Section, sent a letter to Col. Ash announcing the reactivation of the British Section with 36 active members. The Constitution of the parent organization was reviewed and revised by the British and U.S.-Canadian Sections and a new U.S.-Canadian Constitution was approved by the Council.
The minutes of the Council meeting of the American-Canadian Section at the Somerset Hotel in Boston on April 13, 1949 noted that there were "343 members in the American-Canadian Section, 49 in the British Section, making a total of 392 members in the international body."
The U.S.-Canadian Section had members in Austria, Hawaii, India, Italy, Mexico and South America. The British Section had members from the British Isles, Africa, Australia, Czechoslovakia and Norway. The minutes of this meeting records: "The Council now acting as the Council for the parent body, nominated officers and councillors for the international group for three years as follows: President, Col. J. E. Ash, Washington, D.C.; Vice President, Dr. Matthew J. Stewart, Leeds, England; Vice President, Dr. William Boyd, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. Ruell A. Sloan, Washington, D.C. Councillors elected were: Dr. G. Lyman Duff, Montreal, Canada; Dr. Everett L. Bishop, Atlanta, Georgia; Prof. Wilfred D. Newcomb, London, England; and Prof. D. F. Chappell, Glasgow, Scotland.
A revised Constitution and Bylaws of the American-Canadian Section was published in Bulletin No. 27, pp. 216-219, October 1947. A revised Constitution and Bylaws of the international body was published in Bulletin No. 28, October 1948, pp. 211-215.
Following the termination of World War II, a burst of activity developed in the field of histochemistry. At first, papers reporting the application of newly developed coloring techniques to histopathologic sections were read at the annual scientific sessions of the U.S.-Canadian Section of the IAMM and subsequently published in the Bulletin.
As the new discipline of histochemistry
grew in importance and numbers, it was not long before those engaged
in this discipline began to realize their strength and unity. Led by
Dr. Ralph Lillie of NIH, and some of his colleagues in the universities,
a group of members of the IAMM organized into a Histochemical Society
and launched a new publication "The Journal of Histochemistry." The
immediate consequences of this development had an effect on the number
of papers submitted to the Bulletin which diminished as well as the
attendance at the scientific sessions.
Attendance at the fortieth annual meeting of the U.S.-Canadian Section of the IAMM at the Academy of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio, April 25, 1951, was alarmingly low. There were only 30 registrants. The Council of the Association met at 8:30 p.m. the evening before (April 24, 1951) at the Wade-Park Manor. Dr. G. Lyman Duff presided at the Council Meeting and members present were: Drs. Roger Baker, Averill Liebow, Thomas D. Kinney, Harold L. Stewart, Jesse Edwards, Granville A. Bennett, Douglas T. Sprunt, James B. McNaught, and Ruell A. Sloan.
It was noted that the U.S.-Canadian Section of the IAMM was faced with a grave situation. The critical questions which faced the Council were: Should the Council recommend to the membership the dissolution of the Association and discontinuance of the publication of the Bulletin? Should the Council take steps to broaden the aims and improve the image of the Association and launch a new publication with more appeal to pathologists? The word "Museums" in the title of the Association was criticized by some as having a musty and ancient connotation, inappropriate for a forward looking pathology society.
Even in its critical situation, the IAMM remained financially sound from the generous donations of Lord Strathcona and the Carnegie Foundation.
When the Council met on April 24, it had before it a letter written by Dr. Ralph D. Lillie on behalf of the Histochemical Society proposing that both organizations hold joint meetings and that the Bulletin of the IAMM be merged with the Journal of Histochemistry. The Council deliberated three days on this issue but made no decision in regard to Dr. Lillie's proposal. Dr. Sidney Farber resigned as Editor of the Bulletin and the Council appointed Dr. Thomas Kinney to succeed him. It authorized Dr. Kinney to develop recommendations for publication with a new format, title, and publisher. The Council nominated Officers and Councillors as follows: President, Dr. Granville A. Bennett; Vice President, Dr. James B. McNaught; and Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. Ruell A. Sloan.
Due to the sudden death of Dr. Ruell A. Sloan, Secretary-Treasurer, on June 17, 1951, the minutes of the meeting were not completed. Three new Council Members had been elected to office (Drs. N. B. Freedman, W. L. Donahue, and Edward B. Smith) but had not yet been formally notified of their appointments. Dr. Chapman Binford chaired a committee of three that audited the books after Dr. Sloan's death.
A special meeting of the Council was held October 17-18, 1951 at the Drake Hotel in Chicago primarily to name a new Secretary-Treasurer of the Association, to notify the new Council Members of their appointments, and to discuss further the unfinished business.
The Officers, Council Members, and active members of the Association attending this meeting were: Drs. Granville A. Bennett, President; James B. McNaught, Vice President; Thomas B. Kinney; Jesse Edwards, James E. Ash; Hugh G. Grady; Nathan Kaufman; Edward B. Smith and Harold L. Stewart.
The Council voted to appoint Dr. Harold Stewart interim Secretary / Treasurer and Dr. Hugh G. Grady to fill the vacancy left by Dr. Sloan on the Council. Both appointments were subject to confirmation by the Association's membership. (These were confirmed by the members within 30 days.)
The Council debated for hours on the future of the IAMM, whether to continue it or to dissolve it. The discussion was heated. The Council considered at length Dr. Lillie's proposal and those who were in favor of continuation won out, but not until the early hours of the morning of October 18, 1951.
Mr. Paul Hoeber was called into the Council session and he and Dr. Kinney presented the tentative agreements that they had arrived at in conferences held between them during the summer of 1951. They presented to Council a plan to launch a new quarterly journal under the editorship of Dr. Kinney. A number of names for the new journal were suggested but ultimately none of them were adopted. The name "Laboratory Investigation" was agreed upon at some time between the end of October 1951 and the meeting held in New York City in April 1952. Proposals were made to change the name of the IAMM but none of the names suggested were agreed upon.
Dr. Kinney was directed to prepare and circulate a letter to the membership in reference to the changes in the journal and to receive the replies by November 15, 1951.
Dr. Kinney read the names of the new Editorial Board to the Council, they were: Drs. Edwards, Liebow, Duff, Stowell, Farber, McManus, McArdle, Ash and Kaufman, Assistant Editor. The meeting of the Council adjourned at 3:00 a.m. on October 18, 1951.
In correspondence to Prof. Matthew J. Stewart of Leeds, England, on February 18, 1952, Dr. Harold Stewart, Secretary-Treasurer of the IAMM informed him of the action of the Council taken at the October 17, 1951 meeting in Chicago to make some changes in format of the Bulletin and changing the title to "Laboratory Investigation." He stated: "This is being published by Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., Medical Book Department of Harper Brothers, 49 E. 33rd Street, New York 16, New York. The cost of this journal to members is $6.00 a year. The dues for the American members is $5.00 a year. We believe we can make up the additional dollar at least for a year or two, and the same, of course, would apply to the British Section. We hope, of course, that this journal will sell very well and as a result the subscription to members will be reduced. I believe that in the past, the British Section has sent a check to the Secretary-Treasurer covering the subscriptions for a listed number of members. If you choose to do that this year, we will add the additional dollar for each subscription and send it off to Paul Hoeber."
The forty-first meeting of the IAMM was held April 9, 1952 at the Hotel New Yorker in New York. Officers and Councillors attending the meeting were: Drs. Granville Bennett, Lyman Duff, Thomas Kinney, Jesse Edwards, Averill Liebow, and Harold Stewart. At this meeting Dr. F. K. Mostofi was elected to the office of Secretary-Treasurer and Dr. Harold L. Stewart was elected to the office of Vice President.
At the business meeting, Dr. Henry Edmonds introduced a resolution, which was adopted, that the Council appoint a committee to study a change of name of the Association. Col. Ash, Dr. Harold Stewart, and Dr. F. K. Mostofi were appointed to serve on this committee. The legal aspects were explored with the Bursar of McGill University where the Strathcona and Carnegie funds were kept and no objection to changing the name was raised. By mail ballot the vote was three to one in favor of changing the name (Only 2/5ths of the members voted).
In Dr. Mostofi's report of the minutes of that meeting, he informed the members that there had been considerable discussion about changing the name of the IAMM. New names suggested were "Association for Advancement of Pathology" and "Association for Laboratory Investigation." In a letter to the membership, Dr. Mostofi asked the members which of these names they preferred or if neither what name they would suggest.
A subsequent committee consisting of Drs. Chapman Binford, Jesse Edwards, Harold Gordon and Edward B. Smith proposed the name "International Academy of Pathology." The committee noted that according to Webster's Dictionary "academy" is defined as "a society of learned men united for the advancement of the arts and sciences and literature or some particular science as the French Academy."
Another name given consideration was the "International Association of Pathologists" but the committee favored the former to avoid confusion with the International Society of Clinical Pathologists and to express the connotation of a learned society. The name was finally changed by vote of 47 to 13 at the meeting in Houston in 1955 from the International Association of Medical Museums to the International Academy of Pathology, since it was felt that the interests of the organization were much broader than that indicated by the old title.
In the "Secretary's News Letter", Vol. 1, No. 1, dated 1952 with regard to the journal stated: "Many of you have already indicated your satisfaction with the fine work being done by our editor, Dr. Thomas D. Kinney, his assistant, Dr. Nathan Kaufman, and our publisher, Mr. Paul Hoeber. The Council was so favorably impressed by the work of the editor that he was authorized to make the journal a bi-monthly publication in 1953 without increasing the subscription rate." It further stated: "You may be interested to know that when the first issue (January 1952) of Laboratory Investigation went to press, it was thought that 1,250 copies would be more than adequate. Some 200 copies were used by the publisher for advertisement. By May the first issue was exhausted. We now have about 1200 subscriptions and there are more than 500 members of the Association. Both are increasing rapidly. Members who discard their journals are urged to return them to the editor. He needs back issues badly, especially the first number."
The same volume contained the first mention of pathological effects of new chemotherapeutic agents. It stated: "This year the Program Committee is considering a symposium on Techniques for Demonstrating Structural Changes in Infections, Neoplastic and Other Diseases, Following Use of Modern Chemotherapeutic Agents." It also stated "It has been suggested that in addition to the general meeting our association offer a one day course in pathologic physiology. For Example, under such a plan a course may be offered on the kidney, the lung or other organ, with 6 to 8 outstanding speakers invited to discuss its anatomy and embryology, its physiology, and the morphologic changes in disease, and perhaps even clinical and experimental aspects. This would not be a seminar, nor would microscopic slides be used. The course would not duplicate those offered by any other society and would extend and supplement the program of clinical pathology offered by the American Society of Clinical Pathology and the College. It would have the advantage of a thorough review of an organ not only with regard to its diseased state but its normal function as well. Whether such a course can be offered at the 1953 meeting remains to be seen, but if the members are interested the Program Committee will make every effort to arrange for it."
This idea was fostered by Dr. F. K. Mostofi and carried out at the April 1, 1953 meeting in St. Louis. The Secretary's News Letter, Vol. 1, No. 3 dated January 1954 stated: The pattern established at the 1953 meeting will be followed. It is appropriate to acknowledge that much of the success of last year's course was owed to the vigorous efforts of our excellent secretary, Dr. Mostofi. The Association is again fortunate in that Dr. E. Gall has consented to act as moderator for a course in 'Pathological Physiology and Surgical Pathology of the Liver.' A very stimulating program, to occupy three half days, is actively organized and will be announced. An additional half day will be devoted to original contributions from the membership."
In a 1957 memorandum, Harold L. Stewart gives credit for the rejuvenation and success of the International Academy of Pathology to Dr. F. K. Mostofi who originated the idea of giving a long course at the annual meetings, to Dr. Chapman Binford for arranging and managing the short courses in surgical pathology (started at the Cincinnati meeting in 1956), to Dr. Jesse Edwards for setting the pattern and obtaining commercial exhibits at the national meetings, to Robert E. Stowell for increasing the membership and to Thomas Kinney for the success of the journal "Laboratory Investigation."
In 1956, three hundred and seventy-six pathologists attended the surgical pathology courses. There were four hundred and fifty attendees for the long course on the Erythropoetic System. The short courses on "Surgical Pathology" began at the meeting in Cincinnati in 1956 when Dr. Chapman Binford was Chairman of the Education Committee. He was coordinator of the courses. For 10 years Joshua Edwards served as Chairman of the Short Course Committee succeeding Chapman Binford.
The International Academy of Pathology was incorporated in the District of Columbia on November 14, 1955 (Certificate No. 44020, Book 0138, Page 508). The Certificate of Incorporation was signed by Frank B. Johnson, Herman Van Cott, and Webb Haymaker, all of the staff of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
The Constitution and Bylaws were revised several times over the years. The Constitution currently in effect was adopted during the International Congress in Washington, D.C. on October 17, 1976.
In 1956 the Secretary submitted a proposed Seal of the Academy. A committee appointed to make recommendations on the Seal included Drs. F. W. Wiglesworth and Lall G. Montgomery.
Dr. Wiglesworth described in Laboratory Investigation 10:1, 1961, the four years it took to get approval of the seal as follows:
"After nearly four years of intermittent thought, rough sketches, much correspondence, many changes and alterations, the seal of the Academy was approved this year in the form seen above and on the cover of this issue of Laboratory Investigation. This, I have been told, is an unusually short time, for such designs are so much a matter of individual opinion that it is extremely difficult to reach a final decision; even then, universal approval is impossible.
The basic problem was to symbolize pathology, learning (education), and internationalism. The first is represented by the Marshall-Hooke microscope (c. 1704), which was chosen because of the beauty of line, as well as to give the seal an historic perspective. This instrument is mounted on a ball-and-socket joint, with a condensing lens fitted on a jointed arm (where one would expect the mirror); above this is placed the slide holder. The lamp of learning is a standard heraldic symbol and represents the educational, teaching, and investigative aspects of the Academy. "International" is symbolized by the earth with its continents and oceans. The "I.A.M.M. 1906" represents the International Association of Medical Museums, the original name of the Academy and its founding date.
For better or worse, the Academy now has an official seal, an event that may be taken as a sign of quality and maturity."
Attendance at the annual meetings increased rapidly during the 1950's, from 30 in 1951 to 100 in 1952 and to 800 in 1957. The total assets also increased from $3,991.48 in 1950 to $25,730.97 by 1958. This was indeed a decade of growth and development. (Personal communications: Harold L. Stewart, F. K. Mostofi, C. H. Binford, N. Kaufman, G. Cunningham, James E. Ash, Jesse Edwards, F. W. Wiglesworth)
During these years, the banner of the International Academy of Pathology continued to be "education." The programs at the International Congresses, held every two years, and at the meetings of the divisions placed emphasis on "surgical pathology and pathological physiology."
For example, in the American-Canadian Section (later the United States / Canadian Division) the short courses were frequently over-subscribed. The long courses attracted large audiences. The monographs that resulted from these courses became standard references for the state of the art on specific areas of pathology where rapid advances in scientific knowledge made it impossible for an individual to remain abreast on his own resources. Specialty conferences were held in the evenings reflecting the membership's interest in various areas of pathology. These became popular events at other section (later division) and international meetings.
In 1960 the total membership was reported to be 2,000. The current membership is over 7,500.
The thirteenth International Congress of the IAP held recently in Paris, France on 15-19 September 1980 was an outstanding success with more than 1,000 registrants and more than 300 accompanying persons. A Post-Congress meeting in Budapest, Hungary attracted more than 300 registrants.
Proof of the vigor of the Academy is the latest annual meeting of the U.S.-Canadian Division in Chicago March 2-7, 1981. This material was prepared as a basis for the Diamond Jubilee Lecture presented at that time. Many of the other divisions exhibit the same vigor at their excellent meetings.
The success of the International Academy of Pathology has been a heartwarming experience, especially for those who worked diligently to revive and nuture it in the post World War II period. Let us hope that the forthcoming 75 years will be as rewarding as the past 75 years.
Kenneth M Earle